Underground Engineering: Planning, Design, Construction and Operation of the Underground Space.
Sustainable development involves meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. To achieve the goal, human beings must further use underground spaces in an effort deal with rapid increase of population, expansion of urbanization, in addition to the effects of climate changes, to ensure resilience against natural disasters, preserve the environment, etc.
Underground engineering is an old subject. In fact, it originated when people lived in caves and scratched into the rock or stiff clay and dug the first underground structures. However, underground engineering is also a new technology, and its theories and methods are still in development. Today, underground construction involves different costs, ground conditions, cultural aspects, religious beliefs, as well and local and national political influences. From this point of view, underground engineering can also be considered as a discipline of art. Even in the 21st century, almost every underground project is a journey into the unknown as only about 0.1% of the ground is known before construction.
The 21st century is the century of underground engineering, and many cities in the world are excavating for subways, underground roads, utilities, water projects, sewage treatments, underground storage, underground plants, and other kinds of different underground facilities. For example, all in all more than 100 km of metro tunnel was being driven in Shanghai in 2015 alone. However, until now there have been few universities in the world teaching underground engineering. Today, Tongji University provides underground engineering courses for undergraduate students in the school of civil engineering, and also provides English language teaching for underground engineering, a need for which this text will fill. Although this book is a useful textbook undergraduate students, it is also a technical reference for young engineers engaged in underground engineering around the world. Along with the development of underground engineering, the Muir Wood “spirit” can be understood as follows:
“Innovation in tunneling is key to economy and safety.” Above all, successful tunneling depends on management of the uncertainty of the ground and how it can affect a specific project. The success of the tunneling scheme thus depends greatly on the competence of the engineer including the ability to understand the owner’s interests as well as the limitations and advantages of existing construction techniques. Engineering economy and efficiency free the contractor from needing to determine risks and understanding “reference conditions” that determine physical features and thus potential contractor liabilities. The secret of success in tunneling is recognizing the ubiquity of uncertainty involved in underground spaces. This uncertainty requires a management strategy specific to the project to minimize risk.
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