Structural Concrete: Strut-and-Tie Models for Unified Design
One of the most important advances in reinforced concrete in recent years is the extension of lower-bound limit theorem-based design procedures, for example, the strut-and-tie model (STM), to shear, torsion, bearing stresses, and the design of structural discontinuities, such as joints, corners, openings, and deep beams. The concept of using the method of strut-and-tie models to the inelastic-reinforcedconcrete analysis was introduced and illustrated for the first time in 1961 by Drucker in his estimate of the load-carrying capacity of a simply supported reinforced concrete beam.
The application of the theory of plasticity to the design of reinforced concrete members under shear and torsion began in the 1970s, especially by Thürlimann and Nielsen and their coworkers. This also formed the basis for the method of strut-andtie models after the work of Schlaich and his coworkers in the 1980s and 1990s. The method has been well-developed worldwide over the past two decades, presented in several texts, and also introduced in many codes of practice, which triggered the acceptance and wide daily use of the method. The development of the method has brought a major breakthrough in design for a consistent theory in the design concept covering both discontinuity- and Bernoulli-regions with similar models. In particular, the method provides a formal design procedure for reinforced concrete detailing.
This book is devoted to the application of the method of strut-and-tie models in the design of structural concrete. In order to put the method into perspective, the theorem of limit analysis with its lower and upper bounds is first presented. The method of STM, as a lower bound solution, is further demonstrated with emphasis on model development and optimization and modeling of standard discontinuity-regions. The failure criteria of the model elements are discussed, with attention to the provisions and recommendations of the ACI 318-14 Code. The method is applied to different classes of regions with attention to the detailing. Structural concrete design is treated in a unified manner with consistency in the treatment of both discontinuity- and Bernoulli-regions. The method is also utilized to explain the behavior of concrete elements and regions in response to boundary forces and reinforcement detailing. This book is addressed to students, researchers, and, in particular, practicing engineers.
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