Distribution System Modeling and Analysis, Third Edition Hardcover by William H. Kersting.
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1 Introduction to Distribution Systems
2 The Nature of Loads
3 Approximate Methods of Analysis
4 Series Impedance of Overhead and Underground Lines
5 Shunt Admittance of Overhead and Underground Lines
6 Distribution System Line Models
7 Regulation of Voltages
8 Three-Phase Transformer Models
9 Load Models
10 Distribution Feeder Analysis
Preface by William H. Kersting: In the last 40 years many papers and textbooks devoted to the computer modeling and analysis of large power system networks have been written. For the most part the models and analysis techniques have been developed for large interconnected transmission systems and synchronous generators. Little, if any, attention was devoted to the distribution system and its major components. As a result, the distribution engineer has not had the same number of tools as the systems engineer to analyze the distribution system under steady-state (power-flow) and fault (short-circuit) conditions. Without these tools the distribution engineer has been left in the dark (no pun intended) as to the operating characteristics of distribution feeders. A lot of “seat of the pants” engineering has had to take place in order to keep the lights on. In recent years more attention has been devoted to the computer modeling and analysis of distribution systems. Computer programs are now available so that the distribution engineer can develop a real feel for how the distribution system is operating. With the tools, power-flow studies can be run to simulate present loading conditions and to help with the long-range planning of new facilities. The tools also provide an opportunity for the distribution engineer to do such things as optimize capacitor placement in order to minimize losses. Different switching scenarios for normal and emergency conditions can be simulated, and short-circuit studies provide the necessary data for the development of a reliable coordinated protection plan for fuses, reclosers, and relay/circuit breakers. In short, the distribution engineer now has the needed tools.
So what is the problem? “Garbage in, garbage out” is the answer. Armed with a commercially available computer program, it is possible for a user to prepare incorrect data that will lead to results that do not make any sense. Without an understanding of the models and a general “feel” for the operating characteristics of a distribution system, serious design errors and operational procedures may result. The user must fully understand the models and analysis techniques of the program.
Most power systems textbooks and courses are limited to the modeling and analysis of balanced three-phase systems. The models and analyses assume a balance so that only a single-phase equivalent model is required. While this works fine for interconnected systems, it is not sufficient for the modeling and analysis of a distribution system. A distribution system is inherently unbalanced, and therefore three-phase models of all the components must be employed. There is a significant difference between the computer programs developed for interconnected system studies and the programs developed for distribution systems. The data requirements for the distribution system models are more extensive. In fact, much of the necessary data may not be readily available.
For many years there has been a need for a textbook to assist the student and distribution engineer in developing a basic understanding of the modeling and operating characteristics of the major components of a distribution system. With this knowledge it will be possible to prevent the “garbage in, garbage out” scenario.
This textbook assumes that the student has a basic understanding of transformers, electric machines, transmission lines, and symmetrical components. In many universities all of these topics are crammed into a one-semester course. For that reason a quick review of the theory is presented as needed. There are many example problems throughout the text. These examples are intended to not only demonstrate the application of the models, but to also teach a “feel” for what the answers should be. The example problems should be studied very carefully. Each chapter will have a series of homework problems that will assist the student in applying the models and developing a better understanding of the operating characteristics of the component being modeled. A word of warning: most of the problems are very number intensive, intensive to the point that most of them cannot be worked easily without using a computing tool such as MathcadTM. Students are urged to learn how to use this very powerful program. They are also encouraged to write their own simple computer programs for many of the problems. A summary of the intent of each chapter follows.
Chapter 1 introduces the basic components of a distribution system. Included is an introduction to the type of data that is necessary to model a distribution system.
Chapter 2 is a discussion of “load.” The attempt here is to make the student understand that the load on a distribution system is constantly changing, and that this must be taken into account in all studies.
Chapter 3 presents some helpful approximate analysis techniques that will help the student know what “ballpark” answers to look for when more precise studies are made.
Chapter 4 is a very important chapter in developing the exact model of line segments. How to take into account the unbalanced loading and unsymmetrical configurations in the calculation of line impedances is presented in great detail. Both overhead and underground lines are included.
Chapter 5 is in many ways a continuation of Chapter 4, except that it is limited to shunt admittance calculations.
Chapter 6 develops the first of the generalized matrices that will be used to model the major components of a distribution system. This chapter is limited to the three-phase, unbalanced line model.
Chapter 7 addresses voltage regulation. Starting with a review of basic transformer theory, the chapter moves to the development of three-phase models of step-voltage regulators and their control. The models developed are in the form of generalized matrices similar to those developed for line segments.
Chapter 8 develops comprehensive models of several of the standard three-phase transformer connections that are common on a distribution system. The models, again, are in the form of generalized matrices. Chapter 9 develops the models for the various types of loads on a distribution system.
Chapter 10 puts it all together. All of the component models developed in earlier chapters are put together to form a model of a distribution feeder.
The ladder iterative technique is developed and demonstrated. Also, the three-phase model for short-circuit studies is developed and demonstrated. Two student version software packages are available. Students and professors are encouraged to acquire one or both.
Distribution System Modeling and Analysis, Third Edition Hardcover by William H. Kersting pdf.
⏩Author: William H. Kersting
⏩Publisher: CRC Press; 3 edition (January 24, 2012)
⏩Puplication Date: January 24, 2012
⏩Size: 2.23 MB
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