Chemical Reactor Design “Chemical Industries” 1st Edition by Peter Harriott.
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Preface: This book deals with the design and scaleup of reactors that are used for the production of industrial chemicals or fuels or for the removal of pollutants from process streams. Readers are assumed to have some knowledge of kinetics from courses in physical chemistry or chemical engineering and to be familiar with fundamental concepts of heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer. The first chapter reviews the definitions of reaction rate, reaction order, and activation energy and shows how these kinetic parameters can be obtained from laboratory studies. Data for elementary and complex homogeneous reactions are used as examples.
Chapter 2 reviews some of the simple models for heterogeneous reactions, and the analysis is extended to complex systems in which the catalyst structure changes or in which none of the several steps in the process is rate controlling.
Chapter 3 presents design equations for ideal reactors — ideal meaning that the effects of heat transfer, mass transfer, and partial mixing can be neglected. Ideal reactors are either perfectly mixed tanks or packed bed and pipeline reactors with no mixing. The changes in conversion with reaction time or reactor length are described and the advantages and problems of batch, semibatch, and continuous operation are discussed. Examples and problems are given that deal with the optimal feed ratio, the optimal temperature, and the effect of reactor design on selectivity. The design of adiabatic reactors for reversible reactions presents many optimization problems, that are illustrated using temperature-conversion diagrams.
The major part of the book deals with nonideal reactors. Chapter 4 on pore diffusion plus reaction includes a new method for analyzing laboratory data and has a more complete treatment of the effects of complex kinetics, particle shape, and pore structure than most other texts. Catalyst design to minimize pore diffusion effects is emphasized. In Chapter 5 heat transfer correlations for tanks, particles, and packed beds, are reviewed, and the conditions required for reactor stability are discussed. Examples of unstable systems are included. The effects of imperfect mixing in stirred tanks and partial mixing in pipeline reactors are discussed in Chapter 6 with examples from the literature. Recommendations for scaleup or scaledown are presented. Chapters 7 and 8 present models and data for mass transfer and reaction in gas–liquid and gas–liquid–solid systems. Many diagrams are used to illustrate the concentration profiles for gas absorption plus reaction and to explain the controlling steps for different cases. Published correlations for mass transfer in bubble columns and stirred tanks are reviewed, with recommendations for design or interpretation of laboratory results. The data for slurry reactors and trickle-bed reactors are also reviewed and shown to fit relatively simple models. However, scaleup can be a problem because of changes in gas velocity and uncertainty in the mass transfer coefficients. The advantages of a scaledown approach are discussed.
Chapter 9 covers the treatment of fluidized-bed reactors, based on two-phase models and new empirical correlations for the gas interchange parameter and axial diffusivity. These models are more useful at conditions typical of industrial practice than models based on theories for single bubbles. The last chapter describes some novel types of reactors including riser reactors, catalyst monoliths, wire screen reactors, and reactive distillation systems. Examples feature the use of mass and heat transfer correlations to help predict reactor performance.
I am greatly indebted to Robert Kline, who volunteered to type the manuscript and gave many helpful suggestions. Thanks are also extended to A. M. Center, W. B. Earl, and I. A. Pla, who reviewed sections of the manuscript, and to D. M. Hackworth and J. S. Jorgensen for skilled professional services. Dr. Peter Klugherz deserves special credit for giving detailed comments on every chapter.
1. Homogeneous Kinetics
2. Kinetic Models for Heterogeneous Reactions
3. Ideal Reactors
4. Diffusion and Reaction in Porous Catalysts
5. Heat and Mass Transfer in Reactors
6. Nonideal Flow
7. Gas–Liquid Reactions
8. Multiphase Reactors
9. Fluidized-Bed Reactors
10. Novel Reactors
From back cover:
about the book…
Offering strategies to analyze and interpret kinetic data for homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, this text reference presents principles and techniques for the evaluation, assessment and optimization of reactors in the manufacturing chemical, petrochemical and food processing industrie llastrating practical design procedures, rate equations and analytical models for improved reactor performance Presents case studies and worked examples to illustrate key concepts in the text. Chemical Reactor Design contains guidelines for sealeup of laboratory and pilot plant results…methods to derive the correct reaction order, activation energy, or kinetic model from laboratory tests…and theories, correlations, and practical examples for 2 and 3-phase reaction systems, including bubble columns, slurry reactions, trickle bed reactors and fluidized beds, and analyzes heat and mass transfer phenomena in various reactor types…the effect of heat and mass transfer, senideal flow pattems, and pore diffusion on the conversion and selectivity of industrial reactions and the importance of pellet size, shape, pore structure, and impregnation technique in catalyst function
about the author…
PETER HARRIOTTISE HRbodes Professor of Chemical Engineering Emeritus Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. The author or coauthor of popular tests on process control and unit operations of chemical engineering, as well as more than 80 professional publications, he is a member of the American Chemical Society and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, among other organizations. He received the B. ChemE degree (1949) from Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, and the Sc.D. degree (1952) in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge
Chemical Reactor Design (Chemical Industries) 1st Edition by Peter Harriott pdf.
⏩Author: Peter Harriott
⏩Publisher: CRC Press; 1 edition (November 6, 2002)
⏩Puplication Date: November 6, 2002
⏩Size: 2.81 MB
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