Bridge Engineering Handbook Second Edition by Wai-Fah Chen and Lian Duan.
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1 Geotechnical Earthquake Considerations
2 Earthquake Damage to Bridges
3 Dynamic Analysis
4 Seismic Random Response Analysis
5 Nonlinear Analysis
6 Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Bridges
7 Seismic Bridge Design Specifications for the United States
8 Seismic Design of Concrete Bridges
9 Seismic Design of Steel Bridges
10 Seismic Design of Thin-Walled Steel and CFT Piers
11 Seismic Design of Cable-Supported Bridges
12 Seismic Isolation Design for Bridges
13 Seismic Retrofit Technology
14 Soil–Foundation–Structure Interaction
15 Seismic Design Practice in California
16 Seismic Design Practice in China
17 Seismic Design Practice in Italy
18 Seismic Design Practice in Japan
Throughout the history of civilization bridges have been the icons of cities, regions, and countries. All bridges are useful for transportation, commerce, and war. Bridges are necessary for civilization to exist, and many bridges are beautiful. A few have become the symbols of the best, noblest, and most beautiful that mankind has achieved. The secrets of the design and construction of the ancient bridges have been lost, but how could one not marvel at the magnificence, for example, of the Roman viaducts?
The second edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook expands and updates the previous edition by including the new developments of the first decade of the twenty-first century. Modern bridge engineering has its roots in the nineteenth century, when wrought iron, steel, and reinforced concrete began to compete with timber, stone, and brick bridges. By the beginning of World War II, the transportation infrastructure of Europe and North America was essentially complete, and it served to sustain civilization as we know it. The iconic bridge symbols of modern cities were in place: Golden Gate Bridge of San Francisco, Brooklyn Bridge, London Bridge, Eads Bridge of St. Louis, and the bridges of Paris, Lisbon, and the bridges on the Rhine and the Danube. Budapest, my birthplace, had seven beautiful bridges across the Danube. Bridge engineering had reached its golden age, and what more and better could be attained than that which was already achieved?
Then came World War II, and most bridges on the European continent were destroyed. All seven bridges of Budapest were blown apart by January 1945. Bridge engineers after the war were suddenly forced to start to rebuild with scant resources and with open minds. A renaissance of bridge engineering started in Europe, then spreading to America, Japan, China, and advancing to who knows where in the world, maybe Siberia, Africa? It just keeps going! The past 60 years of bridge engineering have brought us many new forms of bridge architecture (plate girder bridges, cable stayed bridges, segmental prestressed concrete bridges, composite bridges), and longer spans. Meanwhile enormous knowledge and experience have been amassed by the profession, and progress has benefitted greatly by the availability of the digital computer. The purpose of the Bridge Engineering Handbook is to bring much of this knowledge and experience to the bridge engineering community of the world. The contents encompass the whole spectrum of the life cycle of the bridge, from conception to demolition.
The editors have convinced 146 experts from many parts of the world to contribute their knowledge and to share the secrets of their successful and unsuccessful experiences. Despite all that is known, there are still failures: engineers are human, they make errors; nature is capricious, it brings unexpected surprises! But bridge engineers learn from failures, and even errors help to foster progress.
The Bridge Engineering Handbook, second edition consists of five books:
Construction and Maintenance
Fundamentals, Superstructure Design, and Substructure Design present the many topics necessary for planning and designing modern bridges of all types, made of many kinds of materials and systems, and subject to the typical loads and environmental effects. Seismic Design and Construction and Maintenance recognize the importance that bridges in parts of the world where there is a chance of earthquake occurrences must survive such an event, and that they need inspection, maintenance, and possible repair throughout their intended life span. Seismic events require that a bridge sustain repeated dynamic load cycles without functional failure because it must be part of the postearthquake lifeline for the affected area. Construction and Maintenance touches on the many very important aspects of bridge management that become more and more important as the world’s bridge inventory ages.
The editors of the Bridge Engineering Handbook, Second Edition are to be highly commended for undertaking this effort for the benefit of the world’s bridge engineers. The enduring result will be a safer and more cost effective family of bridges and bridge systems. I thank them for their effort, and I also thank the 146 contributors.
Theodore V. Galambos, PE
Preface to the Second Edition: In the approximately 13 years since the original edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook was published in 2000, we have received numerous letters, e-mails, and reviews from readers including educators and practitioners commenting on the handbook and suggesting how it could be improved. We have also built up a large file of ideas based on our own experiences. With the aid of all this information, we have completely revised and updated the handbook. In writing this Preface to the Second Edition, we assume readers have read the original Preface. Following its tradition, the second edition handbook stresses professional applications and practical solutions; describes the basic concepts and assumptions omitting the derivations of formulas and theories; emphasizes seismic design, rehabilitation, retrofit and maintenance; covers traditional and new, innovative practices; provides over 2500 tables, charts, and illustrations in ready-to-use format and an abundance of worked-out examples giving readers step-by-step design procedures. The most significant changes in this second edition are as follows:
• The handbook of 89 chapters is published in five books: Fundamentals, Superstructure Design, Substructure Design, Seismic Design, and Construction and Maintenance.
• Fundamentals, with 22 chapters, combines Section I, Fundamentals, and Section VI, Special Topics, of the original edition and covers the basic concepts, theory and special topics of bridge engineering. Seven new chapters are Finite Element Method, High-Speed Railway Bridges, Structural Performance Indicators for Bridges, Concrete Design, Steel Design, High Performance Steel, and Design and Damage Evaluation Methods for Reinforced Concrete Beams under Impact Loading. Three chapters including Conceptual Design, Bridge Aesthetics: Achieving Structural Art in Bridge Design, and Application of Fiber Reinforced Polymers in Bridges, are completely rewritten. Three special topic chapters, Weigh-In-Motion Measurement of Trucks on Bridges, Impact Effect of Moving Vehicles, and Active Control on Bridge Engineering, were deleted.
• Superstructure Design, with 19 chapters, provides information on how to design all types of bridges. Two new chapters are Extradosed Bridges and Stress Ribbon Pedestrian Bridges. The Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridges chapter is completely rewritten into two chapters: Precast–Pretensioned Concrete Girder Bridges and Cast-In-Place Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridges. The Bridge Decks and Approach Slabs chapter is completely rewritten into two chapters: Concrete Decks and Approach Slabs. Seven chapters, including Segmental Concrete Bridges, Composite Steel I-Girder Bridges, Composite Steel Box Girder Bridges, Arch Bridges, Cable-Stayed Bridges, Orthotropic Steel Decks, and Railings, are completely rewritten. The chapter Reinforced Concrete Girder Bridges was deleted because it is rarely used in modern time.
• Substructure Design has 11 chapters and addresses the various substructure components. A new chapter, Landslide Risk Assessment and Mitigation, is added. The Geotechnical Consideration chapter is completely rewritten and retitled as Ground Investigation. The Abutments and Retaining Structures chapter is divided in two and updated as two chapters: Abutments and Earth Retaining Structures.
• Seismic Design, with 18 chapters, presents the latest in seismic bridge analysis and design. New chapters include Seismic Random Response Analysis, Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Bridges, Seismic Design of Thin-Walled Steel and CFT Piers, Seismic Design of Cable-Supported Bridges, and three chapters covering Seismic Design Practice in California, China, and Italy. Two chapters of Earthquake Damage to Bridges and Seismic Design of Concrete Bridges have been rewritten. Two chapters of Seismic Design Philosophies and Performance-Based Design Criteria, and Seismic Isolation and Supplemental Energy Dissipation, have also been completely rewritten and retitled as Seismic Bridge Design Specifications for the United States, and Seismic Isolation Design for Bridges, respectively. Two chapters covering Seismic Retrofit Practice and Seismic Retrofit Technology are combined into one chapter called Seismic Retrofit Technology.
• Construction and Maintenance has 19 chapters and focuses on the practical issues of bridge structures. Nine new chapters are Steel Bridge Fabrication, Cable-Supported Bridge Construction, Accelerated Bridge Construction, Bridge Management Using Pontis and Improved Concepts, Bridge Maintenance, Bridge Health Monitoring, Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for Bridge Elements, Life-Cycle Performance Analysis and Optimization, and Bridge Construction Methods. The Strengthening and Rehabilitation chapter is completely rewritten as two chapters: Rehabilitation and Strengthening of Highway Bridge Superstructures, and Rehabilitation and Strengthening of Orthotropic Steel Bridge Decks. The Maintenance Inspection and Rating chapter is completely rewritten as three chapters: Bridge Inspection, Steel Bridge Evaluation and Rating, and Concrete Bridge Evaluation and Rating.
• The section on Worldwide Practice in the original edition has been deleted, including the chapters on Design Practice in China, Europe, Japan, Russia, and the United States. An international team of bridge experts from 26 countries and areas in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America, has joined forces to produce the Handbook of International Bridge Engineering, Second Edition, the first comprehensive, and up-to-date resource book covering the state-of-the-practice in bridge engineering around the world. Each of the 26 country chapters presents that country’s historical sketch; design specifications; and various types of bridges including girder, truss, arch, cable-stayed, suspension, and so on, in various types of materials—stone, timber, concrete, steel, advanced composite, and of varying purposes—highway, railway, and pedestrian. Ten benchmark highway composite girder designs, the highest bridges, the top 100 longest bridges, and the top 20 longest bridge spans for various bridge types are presented. More than 1650 beautiful bridge photos are provided to illustrate great achievements of engineering professions.
The 146 bridge experts contributing to these books have written chapters to cover the latest bridge engineering practices, as well as research and development from North America, Europe, and Pacific Rim countries. More than 80% of the contributors are practicing bridge engineers. In general, the handbook is aimed toward the needs of practicing engineers, but materials may be re-organized to accommodate several bridge courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
The authors acknowledge with thanks the comments, suggestions, and recommendations made during the development of the second edition of the handbook by Dr. Erik Yding Andersen, COWI A/S, Denmark; Michael J. Abrahams, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc.; Dr. Xiaohua Cheng, New Jersey Department of Transportation; Joyce E. Copelan, California Department of Transportation; Prof. Dan M. Frangopol, Lehigh University; Dr. John M. Kulicki, Modjeski and Masters; Dr. Amir M. Malek, California Department of Transportation; Teddy S. Theryo, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc.; Prof. Shouji Toma, Horrai-Gakuen University, Japan; Dr. Larry Wu, California Department of Transportation; Prof. Eiki Yamaguchi, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan; and Dr. Yi Edward Zhou, URS Corp. We thank all the contributors for their contributions and also acknowledge Joseph Clements, acquiring editor; Jennifer Ahringer, project coordinator; and Joette Lynch, project editor, at Taylor & Francis/CRC Press.
From Back Cover:
Over 140 experts, 14 countries, and 89 chapters are represented in the second edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook. This extensive collection highlights bridge engineering specimens from around the world, contains detailed information on bridge engineering, and thoroughly explains the concepts and practical applications surrounding the subject. Published in five books: Fundamentals, Superstructure Design, Substructure Design, Seismic Design, and Construction and Maintenance, this new edition provides numerous worked-out examples that give readers step-by-step design procedures, includes contributions by leading experts from around the world in their respective areas of bridge engineering, contains 26 completely new chapters, and updates most other chapters. It offers design concepts, specifications, and practice, as well as the various types of bridges. The text includes over 2,500 tables, charts, illustrations, and photos. The book covers new, innovative and traditional methods and practices; explores rehabilitation, retrofit, and maintenance; and examines seismic design and building materials. The fourth book, Seismic Design contains 18 chapters, and covers seismic bridge analysis and design.
What’s New in the Second Edition:
• Includes seven new chapters: Seismic Random Response Analysis, DisplacementBased Seismic Design of Bridges, Seismic Design of Thin-Walled Steel and CFT Piers, Seismic Design of Cable-Supported Bridges, and three chapters covering Seismic Design Practice in California, China, and Italy
• Combines Seismic Retrofit Practice and Seismic Retrofit Technology into one chapter called Seismic Retrofit Technology
• Rewrites Earthquake Damage to Bridges and Seismic Design of Concrete Bridges chapters
• Rewrites Seismic Design Philosophies and Performance-Based Design Criteria chapter and retitles it as Seismic Bridge Design Specifications for the United States
• Revamps Seismic Isolation and Supplemental Energy Dissipation chapter and retitles
it as Seismic Isolation Design for Bridges This text is an ideal reference for practicing bridge engineers and consultants (design, construction, maintenance), and can also be used as a reference for students in bridge engineering courses
Bridge Engineering Handbook Second Edition by Wai-Fah Chen and Lian Duan pdf
⏩Editors: Wai-Fah Chen and Lian Duan
⏩CopyRight: 2014 by CRC Press : Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
⏩Size: 20.9 MB
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